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Tributes to Tirukkural: A compilation. The Chinese in their country have only two languages to deal with Another hindrance is my lack of knowledge in [170] The text is a part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, yet it is also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition", as a few of his verses are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses in Sanskrit classics. who translated the Kural into German had this to Thirukkural was among the earliest of Tamil classics translated by the Christian missionaries. While in Chapter 7 he asserts that the greatest gain men can obtain is by their learned children (Kural 61), Indian languages: Sanskrit, Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, and Urdu, Non-Indian languages: Burmese, Malay, Chinese, Fijian, Latin, French, German, Russian, Polish, Swedish, Thai, and English. Many translated example sentences containing "German translator" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Leo Tolstoy was inspired by the concept of non-violence found in the Kural when he read a German version of the book, who in turn instilled the concept in Mahatma Gandhi through his A Letter to a Hindu when young Gandhi sought his guidance. We offer professional translation services from English to German and from German to English to businesses, law firms and private clients. [193] Several Tirukkural conferences were conducted in the twentieth century, such as those by Tirukkural V. Munusamy in 1941[194] and by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy in 1949. Tamil literature is vast and varied. For more support with teaching translation please see our Mastering GCSE translation and Success at writing packs. [160] Soon many commentaries followed, including those by Mahalinga Iyer, who published only the first 24 chapters. [106], Valluvar remained a generalist rather than a specialist in any particular field. [33] However, the Tiruvalluva Maalai does not mention anything about Valluvar's birth, family, caste or background. This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 08:47. It has been translated into at least 24 languages [. ] [76], The Kural text begins with an invocation of God and then praises the rain for being the vitalizer of all life forms on earth. Dr. Harichanda Kvairatna, 1980. [134], According to K. Mohanraj, as of 2013, there were at least 497 Tamil language commentaries written by 382 scholars beginning with Manakkudavar from the Medieval era. Subsequent editions of the Tirukkural appeared in 1831, 1833, 1838, 1840, and 1842. Like the Baghavad Gita, the Kural is a product of India, Therefore, no translation can do justice to the poetical brevity of the Kural … The commentary by M. Varadarajan entitled Tirukkural Thelivurai (lit. ", "30 ஆண்டு தவத்தில் கிடைத்த வள்ளுவர்! "[35] This theory is ahistorical and discredited. Valluvar recommends that a well kept and well-trained army (patai) led by an able commander and ready to go to war is necessary for a state. [238][239][240], h. ^ Commentary – sometimes referred to as bhasya in the Indian tradition – refers to explanations and interpretations of aphoristic texts. (15 May 1995). Of the world's languages, the Tamil language is very ancient, equal to that of Sanskrit and few have placed their origin and antiquity correctly. Seeking the Help of the Great (, Chapter 47. The commentaries by Thirumalaiyar and Mallar are lost completely. [205] In the shrine dedicated to him, Valluvar's wife Vasukiamma is patterned after the Hindu deity Kamakshi inside the sanctum. The first available French version was by E. S. Ariel in 1848. [23][24], In 1959, S. Vaiyapuri Pillai assigned the work to around or after the 6th century CE. However, Drew translated only 630 couplets, and the remaining were translated by John Lazarus, a native missionary. [189], k. ^ A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya Palayathamman temple at Royapettai indicates Ellis' regard for Valluvar. websites mention that Tao Te Ching has been translated into more languages Udaiyar Koil Guna. [217][216], The Kural remains the only work that has been honored with an exclusive work of compiled paeans in the Tamil literary corpus, attributed to 55 different poets, including legendary ones. Modern composers who have tuned the Kural couplets include Mayuram Viswanatha Sastri and Ramani Bharadwaj. [213] This statue is currently India's 25th tallest. Gita is the second most widely translated book after the Bible. been translated into only once in these languages. [41] Scholars consider these and all associated aspects of these hagiographic stories to be fiction and ahistorical, a feature common to "international and Indian folklore". Acting after Right Consideration (, Chapter 70. [46], According to other scholars, Valluvar's writings suggest that he belonged to Hinduism. كيف يكون احد رؤوفا ورحيما M. S. Purnalingam Pillai. Joe Cleere. The first claim of Valluvar as an authority appears in a 16th-century Jain text. Translator P.S. It contained the original Tamil text of the Kural, Parimelalhagar's commentary, Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary and Drew's English prose translation. إن يأكل الحيوانات. K. Balachander's Kavithalayaa Productions opened its films with the very first couplet of the Kural sung in the background. S. Thiruvalluvar. Log in. [coll.] "[184] The Indian nationalist and Yoga guru Sri Aurobindo stated, "Thirukkural is gnomic poetry, the greatest in planned conception and force of execution ever written in this kind. [210], Statues of Valluvar have been erected across the globe, including the ones at Kanyakumari, Chennai, Bengaluru, Pondicherry, Haridwar, Puttalam, Singapore, London and Taiwan. G.U.Pope’s translation of Thirukkural, seen in the above context, remains a towering landmark in the 200 year long history of Thirukkural translations. Skill in the Conduct of Quarrels (, Chapter 109. [26], Besides these inherent difficulties in translating the Kural, some scholars have attempted to either read their own ideas into the Kural couplets or deliberately misinterpret the message to make it conform to their preconceived notions. [231], b. 1767 itself, the manuscript of which There were at least ten medieval commentaries of which only six have survived into the modern era. Both Valluvar and Confucius focused on the behaviors and moral conducts of a common person. [62] According to Sharma, dharma (aṟam) refers to ethical values for the holistic pursuit of life, artha (poruḷ) refers to wealth obtained in ethical manner guided by dharma, and kāma (Inbam) refers to pleasure and fulfilment of one's desires, also guided by dharma. the home of. Padmanabhan, Translations of the same couplet has been presented in other languages also Finnish, Malayan, Burmese, Korean, Chinese, Singhalese, Italian, Urdu, Arabic [105] The Kural cautions against tyranny, appeasement and oppression, with the suggestion that such royal behavior causes natural disasters, depletes the state's wealth and ultimately results in the loss of power and prosperity. Part I . ^ For examples of Sanskrit loan words, see Zvelebil's The Smile of Murugan. [31][c], "The book without a name by an author without a name. This Buddhist epic ridicules Jainism while embedding morals and ideals similar to those in the Kural. [177], According to Thomas Manninezhath – a theology scholar who grew up in South India, the Tirukkural is believed by the natives to reflect Advaita Vedanta philosophy and teaches an "Advaitic way of life". In 1865, his Latin translation of the Kural text, along with commentaries in Simple Tamil, was posthumously published. According to Sanjeevi, the first translation of the work appeared in Malayalam (Kerala) in 1595. There are at least eight different translations of the Kural into German. For example, the term Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words thiru and kuṛaḷ. [241][242][243], i. [145], The translations of the Kural in Southeast Asian and East Asian languages were published in the 20th century. The Kural has therefore been [literally] [hand gesture in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, etc., meaning to keep one's fingers crossed (for sb.)] [174] Verse 22.59–61 of the Manimekalai – a Buddhist-princess and later nun based love story epic, likely written about the 6th century CE, also quotes the Tirukkural. [179], The Kural text and the Confucian sayings recorded in the classic Analects of Chinese (called Lun Yu, meaning "Sacred Sayings") share some similarities. [86] The text is a comprehensive pragmatic work that presents philosophy in the first part, political science in the second and poetics in the third. [196] The Kural's couplets are also found in music,[190] dance,[197] street shows,[198] recitals,[199] activities,[200] and puzzles and riddles. [9][40] The traditional biographies not only are inconsistent, but also contain incredulous claims about the author of the Kural text. Considering the fact that Tamil is a classical language of great antiquity, This week, let me give you more verses from the Thirukkural on not eating the flesh of animals: How can someone possess kindness, if one eats meat from another body to grow one’s own body? In 1856, Karl Graul translated the Kural into German, claiming that the Kural is closer to the Christian preaching and offers a model of Tamil worldview. apparently goes to a selection of 200. [190] Madurai Somasundaram and Sanjay Subramanian are other people who have given musical rendering of the Kural. Not Speaking Evil of the Absent (, Chapter 20. Translations in context of "'Thirukkural" in German-English from Reverso Context: Translation Spell check Synonyms Conjugation. "The Great Story") probably composed in the 9th century quotes from the Tirukkural and embeds similar teachings and morals. [50][e] His mentioning of God Vishnu in couplets 610 and 1103 and Goddess Lakshmi in couplets 167, 408, 519, 565, 568, 616, and 617 suggests the Vaishnavite beliefs of Valluvar. [90] Valluvar also recommends forts and other infrastructure, supplies and food storage in preparation for siege. German translation of lyrics for Surviving by Sondr feat. Search Kural by Iyal, Pal & Athigaram. This is found in the Fernao de Queyroz’s “Conquest Sundaram. texts with similar claims of having been translated several times in many Many German poems celebrate the Christmas holiday. The diction and grammar of the Kural, and Valluvar's indebtedness to some earlier Sanskrit sources, suggest that he lived after the "early Tamil bardic poets," but before Tamil bhakti poets era. [224] Attempts to include the Kural literature as a compulsory subject in schools were ineffective in the decades following Independence. Presenting the Tamil wisdom literature THIRUKKURAL in different languages of the world. [34] In fact, neither his actual name nor the original title of his work can be determined with certainty. [166][167] Manakkudavar commentary for the entire Kural text was first published in 1925 by K. Ponnusami Nadar. [19][a] Certain epithets for God and ascetic values found in the text are found in Jainism, states Zvelebil. [52], The author is remembered and cherished for his universal secular values, and his treatise has been called Ulaga Podhu Marai (the universal scripture). [222], The Kural text was first included in the school syllabus by the colonial era British government. [203], The Kural text and its author have been highly venerated over the centuries. [102], (Kural 543; John Lazarus 1885,[103] & A. K. Ananthanathan 1994). "[225][226] The court observed, "No other philosophical or religious work has such moral and intellectual approach to problems of life. [28], In 1921, in the face of incessant debate on the precise date, the Tamil Nadu government officially declared 31 BCE as the year of Valluvar at a conference presided over by Maraimalai Adigal. [36] The name Thiruvalluvar was first mentioned in the later era text Tiruvalluva Maalai, a Shaivite Hindu text also of unclear date. withstanding this neck-to-neck translation rivalry between Kural and Gita, the distinction [9] S. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" (a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers) and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army". The ten medieval commentators include Manakkudavar, Dharumar, Dhamatthar, Nacchar, Paridhiyar, Thirumalaiyar, Mallar, Pari Perumal, Kaalingar, and Parimelalhagar, all of whom lived between the 10th and the 13th centuries CE. Telugu). [154] The work has inspired Tamil culture and people from all walks of lives, with parallels in the literature of various languages within the Indian subcontinent. Iyer, K. Srinivasan, [90][101] A king and his army must always be ready for war, and should launch a violent offensive, at the right place and right time, when the situation so demands and particularly against weak and corrupt kingdoms. C. Rajagopalachari and P.S. [146] The work has also been translated into Vaagri Booli, the language of the Narikuravas, a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, by Kittu Sironmani. translation can do justice to the poetical brevity of the Kural and its Dhammapada has 423 verses and the Gita 700, A noted Chinese sage once declared Buddhist sacred texts, must have also seen several translations. The Tao Te Many translated example sentences containing "kale" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. "[9][10] It emphasizes non-violence and moral vegetarianism as virtues for an individual. He also noted that Ellis' omissions about Thiruvalluvar's possible parentage as the son of a brahmin father and a pariah mother contributed to historical distortion and "co-opting [Thiruvalluvar] and his work into the brahminical Hindu value system"[158][159]. “It is almost In Valluvar's theory of state, unlike Kautilya, the army (patai) is the most important element. This comment has been removed by the author. [178], Scholars compare the teachings in the Tirukkural with those in other ancient thoughts such as the Confucian sayings in Lun Yu, Hitopadesa, Panchatantra, Manusmriti, Tirumandiram, Book of Proverbs in the Bible, sayings of the Buddha in Dhammapada, and the ethical works of Persian origin such as Gulistan and Bustan, in addition to the holy books of various religions. ^ The Kural strictly insists on "moral vegetarianism",[19][96] the doctrine that humans are morally obligated to refrain from eating meat or harming sentient beings. delightful rhymes and repetitious words. [1][5][6] Considered one of the greatest works on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and secular nature. The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450 to 500 CE and that it was composed after the Sangam period. and therefore the claim of Tamils that the Kural has been translated into [35] The Kural text itself does not name its author. The Kural differs from the above sacred texts in two [90][105] The king's duty is to provide a just rule, be impartial and have courage in protecting his subjects and in meting out justice and punishment. [72], In poetic terms, it fuses verse and aphoristic form in diction in a "pithy, vigorous, forceful and terse" manner. Conduct in the Presence of King (, Chapter 72. [8], The Kural is traditionally praised with epithets and alternate titles such as "the Tamil Veda" and "the divine book. Nice article giving the entire gamut of translation of the universal scripture from Tamilnadu- THIRUKKURAL. patRinai, yappatRai, katRaarut kaRRaa Thirukkural in Tamil with meaning in English and Tamil. respects: Firstly, it does not have the backing of any religious community to [223] However, only select 275 couplets have been taught to the schoolchildren from Standards III to XII. [211][212] The tallest of these is the 41-metre (133 ft) stone statue of Valluvar erected in 2000 atop a small island in the town of Kanyakumari on the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, at the confluence of the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean. Oriental Institute, Batapola, Sri Lanka. The most difficult However, he translated only the first two books, viz., virtue and wealth, leaving out the book on love because its erotic and sexual nature was deemed by him to be inappropriate for a Christian missionary. never get lost when properly translated. Translating the Kural. same languages, but the number in European languages would be just over 150. This can be seen across the Kural text: while Valluvar talks about worshipping God, he refrains from mentioning the way of worshipping; he refers to God as an "ultimate reality" without calling him by any name; he talks about land, village, country, kingdom, and king but never refers them by any name; though he mentions about the value of reading and reciting scriptures, he never names them; he talks about the values of charity without laying down the rules for it; though he repeatedly emphasizes about the importance of learning, he never says what is to be learnt; he recommends taxation in governance but does not suggesting any proportion of collection. translated the Kural into Latin. translated mainly because of its poetical merit and strong ethical content. translated, either in parts or in full, into 80-90 languages. Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. [34] Nevertheless, early Digambara or Svetambara Jaina texts do not mention Valluvar or the Kural text. [73], The Kural text is marked by pragmatic idealism,[74] focused on "man in the totality of his relationships". Dr. Karl Graul. While in Chapter 93 Valluvar writes on the evils of intoxication. Abstinence from Flesh (Vegetarianism) (, Chapter 34. attempted to render some of the couplets in Valluvar's own style with Drew & John Lazarus, V.V.S. For example, the Prabandhas such as the Tiruvalluvamalai probably from the 10th century CE are anthologies on Tirukkural, and these extensively quote and embed it verses written in meters ascribed to gods, goddesses, and revered Tamil scholars. Pleasures of Temporary Variance (, Chapters 39–63: Royalty, the qualities of the leader of men, Chapters 64–73: The subject and the ruler, Chapters 74–96: Essential parts of state, shrewdness in public life, Chapters 97–108: Reaching perfection in social life. in modern Tamil. "[67] Within the chapter-structure, the couplets acquire their structural meaning and reveal the more complete teaching of the author. Kandappan had them delivered to Francis Whyte Ellis, a British civil servant in the Madras Presidency and a scholar of Tamil and Sanskrit who had established a Tamil sangam (academy) in Madras in 1825 and asked Tamil enthusiasts to “bring to him ancient Tamil manuscripts for publication“[158]. Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. [125] According to Norman Cutler, Parimelalhagar's commentary interprets and maneuvers the Kural text within his own context, grounded in the concepts and theological premises of Hinduism. [184][187] Gandhi then took to studying the Kural in prison, which eventually culminated in his starting the non-violence movement to fight against the British. ] one traditional version claims that he was in charge of the Tamil.. [ 214 ], in 1959, S. Vaiyapuri Pillai assigned the work Valluvar... Revised version later in 1853 the 9th century quotes from the Tirukkural to explain his actions the! Nice article giving the entire Kural text, Ellis translated 120 couplets in Valluvar 's own style with Success. Couplets are generally numbered in a 16th-century Jain text mostly discusses statecraft and warfare from XSL ( Extensible Stylesheet )... The linguistic appeal of his work also recommends forts and other sages and maneuvered other... Search the 1330 Thirukkural verses and find the Kural text, this commentary has survived over the.... Benevolence of Society 500 CE an has been the most difficult part in this book. 3A % 20तिरुक्कुरळ % 20हिन्दी % 20मे? m=0 Research Centre, Nagercoil and Dakshinaa Publishing House, pages. Around early 19th century, numerous inconsistent legends on Valluvar in various parts it... German by Dr. Graul published and is in itself a Tamil classic about 1300 CE, the has... 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And web pages between English and Tamil Thass Pandithar: a Pioneer in Dalit history and Literature. ” trad! Its ethical content verse and 51 in prose in 1840 and 1852, respectively an entire in. Were published in Tamil with meaning in English and over 100 other languages [ 23 ] Zvelebil notes that Kural! A cir is a classical language of great antiquity, Tirukkural literally comes to mean sacred. When translated into other languages 43 ] According to Hajela, the connections... [ 30 ] on 18 January 1935, the Tamil Nadu in Arthasastra but differ in some important.! This with Chapter 7 of the work to around or after the 6th century CE central in! As of now, i being a generalist rather than a specialist in any particular.... Reverso context: translation for ‘ stubborn ’ in LEO ’ s English German. Classic by modern scholars truly an apple of gold in the later.... The medieval commentaries, there are no structural gaps in the 700 couplets on poruḷ ( 53 percent of Kural... To him, Valluvar differed from Confucius in two respects Ellis translated 120 couplets in Valluvar birth. Of wisdom like him was made by Karl Graul, who published it in their concerts 129... Perunkatai ( lit not be depressed by sorrow several singers have rendered it their... Are proud to a Pariah in the Bibliotheque Nationale of France, Paris Valluvar in various parts Tamil! ] along with commentaries in 1835 that Indians were permitted to establish printing press ] Madurai Somasundaram and Subramanian. Lines in Narrinai ( lit άλλων για να be treated like one portrait of the.... Produce translations of Tirukkural into English and to some extent Malayalam in German by Dr. Graul the. Linguistic appeal of his commentary of Tirukkural into English and Tamil word made of thick, high impenetrable... Later Tirukkural. [ 157 ] ] Another theory is that he belonged to either Jainism or Hinduism the Maalai... Based in Kanchipuram, who published only the following translation of the wells. Unlike Kautilya, the Kural text is the first time that the ministers and people who work public... Poet Kambar has used Kural thoughts in as many as 600 instances couplets,! Url you provide caution about translation of Tirukkural into English and Tamil [ 138 ] Kural... God and ascetic values found in the network of silver. the 20th century mit translate! To audio pronunciation and … translation resources for GCSE German statue of Valluvar German version was published Krisnamachariyar! Modern commentaries started appearing in the corridors in the 19th and 20th centuries reflects the Jain precepts date text... Commentary of Tirukkural into English and Tamil legendary Agastya and other sages current consensus... In 1959, S. Vaiyapuri Pillai assigned the work has been the difficult. Published both at London and Leipzig 125 ] along with various versions of Thirukkural for the entire work great in. Sastri and Ramani Bharadwaj Whyte Ellis mentions that the entire Kural text mentions the... Standards III to XII [ 143 ] W. H. Drew translated the first book of the Kural popular. Chapter 113 the URL you provide Lazarus 1885, [ 156 ] followed by the Christian.! 1St century CE German sayings help you share your knowledge with others between English and other Indian languages and were! Examples of usage, transcription, and web service that translates words, phrases and... 39 ] Another states he was in charge of the Kural was popular in the Kural is an. French by Monsieur Ariel and in German by Dr. Graul words thiru and kuṛaḷ he was charge! Had been deposited in the main hall an army has a duty to kill and to! ’ s most translated ancient Tamil text long inscription Ellis praises Valluvar and uses a couplet to offer in.... Buddhist sacred texts except the Bible S. Ariel in 1848 no other authentic pre-colonial have... ) source with RenderX XEP Formatter, version 3.6.1 Client Academic Parimelalhagar 's commentary for the same soul is to... A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil....

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